GR9277 #58



Alternate Solutions 
ETScustomer 20170923 18:07:55  For those who would rather not use the method of elimination:\r\n\r\nFirst use up two (two because spin up and spin down are different states) electrons to fill the . These two electrons give us the . Then, use up another two electrons to get the for . Then, use up six more electrons to fill the , and that gives the . We\'ve used up now ten electrons, so place the final electron in the shell to get a . Altogether, this state is notated as .\r\n\r\nFor higher atomic number atoms, the way of filling the shells to get the ground state is a little more elaborate than the pattern that I used here might suggest. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aufbau_principle#Madelung_energy_ordering_rule for more about this.  

Comments 
deneb 20181013 23:23:14  If you know enough about orbitals to eliminate 4 answers, it would be way quicker to just figure out the correct configuration for 11 electrons and pick C   ETScustomer 20170923 18:07:55  For those who would rather not use the method of elimination:\r\n\r\nFirst use up two (two because spin up and spin down are different states) electrons to fill the . These two electrons give us the . Then, use up another two electrons to get the for . Then, use up six more electrons to fill the , and that gives the . We\'ve used up now ten electrons, so place the final electron in the shell to get a . Altogether, this state is notated as .\r\n\r\nFor higher atomic number atoms, the way of filling the shells to get the ground state is a little more elaborate than the pattern that I used here might suggest. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aufbau_principle#Madelung_energy_ordering_rule for more about this.   diggydax 20150323 12:27:14  I'm a little confused about notation in chemistry. In Quantum Mechanics, the notation of (2s+1)^L_(j) is used where L is a place holder for the total angular momentum quantum number (l=0 >S, l=1>P, l=2 >D, etc). How does 2s+1 relate to the proton number, in this case Z=11. The solution says to sum up the superscripts to see which add up to 11 but why?   blackerester 20120416 22:24:54  This is learned in chemistry isn't it? I'm an astrophysics major and chemistry is not a requirement so all the atomic orbital and spectroscopic notation questions are foreign to me.
mpdude8 20120420 00:00:06 
It's definitely taught in basic chemistry, but it's also very relevant to Quantum Mechanics and Electromagnetism. I remember discussing this topic in my first E&M class when going over paramagnetism/ferromagnetism.
In fact, this atomic and spectroscopic stuff actually originates from Quantum Mechanics (spin, angular momentum, etc.)... introductory college chemistry courses just simplify it tremendously.

  hoyas08 20080617 15:48:49  Choice (B) should read: 122   neutrino 20071102 10:27:37  should we read;
?
Because else choice C does not add to 11 electrons (2+2+6=10)
neutrino 20071102 10:29:06 
oeps, latex does not catch my brackets:
it should be...

evanb 20080623 19:40:06 
Yes, 3s should be read as 3s. Otherwise, you wouldn't write it at all, or you would specify 3s.

 

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